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target="_blank">高效减水å‰?/a>的作ç”?/span><br /> <span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';"><span>    </span><span style="font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';line-height:1.5;">   </span>高效减水剂:是指在砼和易性及水惔用量不变条äšg下,能减ž®‘拌合用水量ã€?/span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">提高砼强度;或在和易性及强度不变条äšg下,节约水惔用量的外加剂。与普通减</span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">水剂相比åQŒå‡æ°´åŠå¢žå¼ºä½œç”¨éƒ½è¾ƒå¼ºã€?/span><br /> <span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';"><span>    </span><span style="font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';line-height:1.5;">   </span>高效减水剂的作用: 可以有效地减ž®‘了砼的的塌落度损失åQŒæ”¹å–„æ؜凝土的工</span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">作度åQŒæé«˜æµåŠ¨æ€§ï¼Œåœ¨é«˜æ€§èƒ½ç ég¸­å‘挥重要的作用,只是至今为止仍旧没有一ä¸?/span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">完美的理论来解释高效减水剂的作用机理åQŒä½†æœ‰å‡ ä¸ªç†è®ÞZؓ大家普遍认同ã€?/span><br /> <span>    </span><span style="font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';line-height:1.5;">   </span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">二、高效减水剂的原ç?/span><br /> <span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';"><span>    </span><span style="font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';line-height:1.5;">   </span>1)静电斥力理论åQšæ°´æ³¥æ°´åŒ–后åQŒç”±äºŽç¦»å­é—´çš„范德华力作用以及水泥水化矿物ã€?/span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">水惔主要矿物在水化过½E‹ä¸­å¸¦ä¸åŒç”µè¯‚€Œäñ”生凝聚,å¯ÆD‡´äº†ç ¼äº§ç”Ÿ¾i®å‡¾l“构。高æ•?/span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">减水剂大多属阴离子型表面‹zÀL€§å‰‚åQŒæŽºå…¥åˆ°ç ég¸­åŽï¼Œå‡æ°´å‰‚中的负¼›Õd­-SO—ã€?COO</span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">—就会在水惔¾_’子的正电荷Ca2+矿的作用下而吸附于水惔¾_’子上,形成扩散双电å±?/span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">(Zel。a电位)的离子分布,在表面åŞ成扩散双电层的离子分布,使水泥粒子在静电</span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">斥力作用下分散,把水泥水化过½E‹ä¸­å½¢æˆçš„空间网架结构中的束¾~šæ°´é‡Šæ”¾å‡ºæ¥åQŒä‹É</span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">砼流动化。Zeta电位的绝对å€ÆD¶Šå¤§ï¼Œå‡æ°´æ•ˆæžœž®Þp¶Šå¥½ã€‚随着水惔的进一步水化,ç”?/span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">性被中和åQŒé™ç”‰|–¥åŠ›éšä¹‹é™ä½Žï¼ŒèŒƒå¯d华力的作用变成主å¯û|¼Œå¯¹äºŽè˜ç³»ã€ä¸‰èšæ°°èƒºç³»</span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">高效减水剂的ç û|¼Œæ°´æƒ”‹¹†åˆå¼€å§‹å‡èšï¼Œå¡Œè½åº¦ç»æ—¶æŸå¤±æ¯”较大åQŒæ‰€ä»¥æŽºå…¥è¿™ä¸¤ç±»å‡?/span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">水剂的砼所形成的分散是不稳定的。而对于æ°}基磺酸、多¾Ÿ§é…¸¾p»é«˜æ•ˆå‡æ°´å‰‚åQŒç”±äº?/span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">其与水惔的吸附模型不同,¾_’子间吸附层的作用力不用于前两类åQŒå…¶å‘挥分散作用</span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">的主导因素不是Zeta电位åQŒè€Œæ˜¯ä¸€¿Uç¨³å®šçš„分散ã€?/span> </p> <p> <span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';"><span>    </span><span style="font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';line-height:1.5;">   </span>2)立体位阻效应åQ?掺有高效减水剂的水惔‹¹†ä¸­åQŒé«˜æ•ˆå‡æ°´å‰‚的有机分子长铑֮žé™?/span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">上在水惔微粒表面是呈现各¿Uå¸é™„状态的。不同的吔R™„态是因äؓ高效减水剂分子链¾l“æž„</span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">的不同所è‡ß_¼Œå®ƒç›´æŽ¥åª„响到掺有该类减水剂砼的坍落度的经时变化。有研究表明萘系å’?/span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">三聚氰胺¾pÕd‡æ°´å‰‚的吸附状态是‹‚’状链,因而是òq³ç›´çš„吸附,静电排斥作用较弱。其¾l?/span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">果是Zeta电位降低很快åQŒé™ç”µè¡¡å®ÒŽ˜“随着水惔水化˜q›ç¨‹çš„发展受到破坏,使范德华引力</span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">占主å¯û|¼Œåè½åº¦ç»æ—¶å˜åŒ–大。而æ°}基磺酸类高效减水剂分子在水惔微粒表面呈环状、引</span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">¾U¿çŠ¶å’Œé‹É轮状吔R™„åQŒå®ƒä½¿æ°´æ³¥é¢—¾_’之问的静电斥力呈现立体的交错纵横式åQŒç«‹ä½“的静电</span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">斥力的Zeta电位¾læ—¶å˜åŒ–ž®ï¼Œå®è§‚表现为分散性更好,坍落度经时变化小。而聚¾Ÿ§é…¸¾p?/span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">接枝å…Þpšç‰©é«˜æ•ˆå‡æ°´å‰‚大分子在水惔颗粒表面的吸附状态多呈é‹É形。这¿Uå‡æ°´å‰‚不但å…?/span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">有对水惔微粒极好的分散性而且能保持坍落度¾læ—¶å˜åŒ–很小ã€?/span> </p> <p> <span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';"><span>    </span><span style="font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';line-height:1.5;">   </span>原因有三åQ?/span> </p> <p> <span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';"><span>    </span><span style="font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';line-height:1.5;">   </span>åQˆå…¶ä¸€åQ‰ï¼šæ˜?/span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">ç”׃ºŽæŽ¥æžå…Þpšç‰©æœ‰å¤§é‡¾Ÿ§åŸºå­˜åœ¨åQŽå…·æœ‰ä¸€å®šçš„螫合能力åQŒåŠ ä¹‹é“¾çš„立体静甉|–¥åŠ›æž„成对</span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">¾_’子问凝聚作用的é˜È¢åQ?/span> </p> <p> <span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';"><span>    </span><span style="font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';line-height:1.5;">   </span>åQˆå…¶äºŒï¼‰åQšæ˜¯å› äؓ在强¼„±æ€§ä»‹è´¨ä¾‹å¦‚水泥浆体中åQŒæŽ¥æžå…±èšé“¾</span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">逐渐断裂开åQŒé‡Šæ”‘Ö‡º¾Ÿ§é…¸åˆ†å­åQŒä‹É上述½W¬ä¸€ä¸ªæ•ˆåº”不断得以重视;</span> </p> <p> <span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';"><span>    </span><span style="font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';line-height:1.5;">   </span>åQˆå…¶ä¸‰ï¼‰åQšæ˜¯æŽ¥æžå…?/span><span style="font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';font-size:14px;line-height:1.5;">聚物Zeta电位¾lå¯¹å€¼æ¯”萘系和三聚氰胺系减水剂的低,因此要达到相同的分散状态时åQ?/span><span style="font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';font-size:14px;line-height:1.5;">所需要的电荷总量也不如萘¾pÕd’Œä¸‰èšæ°?胺系减水剂那样多。对于有侧链的聚¾Ÿ§é…¸å‡æ°´</span><span style="font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';font-size:14px;line-height:1.5;">剂和氨基¼‚ºé…¸ç›ç³»é«˜æ•ˆå‡æ°´å‰‚,通过˜q™ç§ç«‹ä½“排斥力,能保持分散系¾lŸçš„½E›_®šæ€§ã€?/span> </p> <span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';"><span>    </span><span style="font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';line-height:1.5;">   </span>3)润滑作用åQšé«˜æ•ˆå‡æ°´å‰‚的极性亲水基团定向吸附于水惔颗粒表面åQŒå¤šä»¥æ°¢é”®åŞå¼?/span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">与水分子¾~”合åQŒå†åŠ ä¸Šæ°´åˆ†å­ä¹‹é—®çš„氢键¾~”合åQŒæž„成了水惔微粒表面的一层稳定的水膜åQ?/span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">é˜ÀL­¢æ°´æƒ”颗粒问的直接接触åQŒå¢žåŠ äº†æ°´æƒ”颗粒间的滑动能力åQŒè“v到润滑作用,从而进一</span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">步提高浆体的‹¹åŠ¨æ€§ã€‚水泥浆巄¡š„微小气æˆöåQŒåŒæ ·å¯¹å‡æ°´å‰‚分的定向吸附极性基团所包裹åQ?/span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">使气泡与气æˆö及气泡与水惔颗粒问也因同甉|€§ç›¸æ–¥è€Œç±»ä¼¼åœ¨æ°´æƒ”微粒间加入许多微珠,äº?/span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">起到润滑作用åQŒæé«˜æµåŠ¨æ€§ã€?/span><br /> <span><span>    </span><span style="font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';line-height:1.5;">   </span></span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">三、与水惔的适应性问é¢?/span><br /> <span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';"><span>    </span><span style="font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';line-height:1.5;">   </span>按照砼外加剂应用技术规范,ž®†ç»‹‚€éªŒç¬¦åˆæœ‰å…Ïx ‡å‡†çš„某种外加剂,掺加到按规定</span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">可以使用该品¿Uå¤–加剂的水泥所配制的砼(或砂‹¹?中,若能够äñ”生应有的效果åQŒå°±è®¤äؓè¯?/span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">水惔与这¿Uå¤–加剂是适应的;相反åQŒå¦‚果不能äñ”生应有的效果åQŒåˆ™è¯¥æ°´æ³¥ä¸Ž˜q™ç§å¤–加剂之</span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">间存在不适应性。高效减水剂与水泥äñ”生不适应性的时候,能够直观快速地反应出来åQŒå¦‚</span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">‹¹åŠ¨æ€§å·®ã€å‡æ°´çŽ‡ä½Žã€æ‹Œåˆç‰©æ¿ç»“发热、塌落度损失˜q‡å¿«½{‰ã€‚高效减水剂与水泥的适应æ€?/span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">受诸多因素的影响åQŒè¯„价高效减水剂与水泥的适应性是十分复杂的ã€?/span><br /> <span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';"><span>    </span><span style="font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';line-height:1.5;">   </span>1åQ‰æ°´æ³¥çŸ¿ç‰©æˆåˆ†çš„影响åQšï¼ˆæ°´æƒ”中C3A即铝é…怸‰é’™ï¼‰æ°´æƒ”中C3AåQˆé“é…怸‰é’™ï¼‰çš„含量越</span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">低,减水剂与水惔的适应性较好;当水泥中C3AåQˆé“é…怸‰é’™ï¼‰çš„含量高æ—Óž¼Œå‡æ°´å‰‚的使用æ•?/span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">果较差。各¿Uè¯•éªŒè¡¨æ˜Žï¼ŒC3AåQˆé“é…怸‰é’™ï¼‰å«é‡é«˜çš„水惔åQŒå°†å½¢æˆå¤§é‡çš„钙矄¡Ÿ³åQŒé¡»æ¶ˆè€—大</span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">量的æ°ß_¼Œä½¿ç ¼‹¹åŠ¨åº¦é™ä½Žï¼Œéœ€å¢žåŠ å‡æ°´å‰‚的用量。这是因为减水剂溶解后,优先选择性地å?/span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">附在C3AåQˆé“é…怸‰é’™ï¼‰æˆ–其初期水化物表面,从而ä‹É对其它粒子äñ”生分散作用的有效的减æ°?/span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">剂量相应减少。【水泥C3AåQˆé“é…怸‰é’™ï¼‰å«é‡­‘Šä½Žå‡æ°´å‰‚ä‹É用效果越好】ã€?/span><br /> <span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';"><span>    </span><span style="font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';line-height:1.5;">   </span>2)水惔¼„±æ€§çš„影响åQšçŽ°ä»£å·¥½E‹æ™®éé‡‡ç”¨çº¯¼‹…或普硅水惔åQŒè€Œè¿™¾cÀL°´æ³¥çš„¼„±åº¦æ˜¯æ¯”较高的ã€?/span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">加上砂、石或外掺材料等也都带有一定数量的¼„±ã€‚碱含量对减水剂与水泥的适应性有很大å½?/span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">响,试验表明åQŒæŽºé‡ä¸€æ ïLš„同种减水剂,采用¼„±å«é‡é«˜çš„水泥,其水泥净‹¹†çš„‹¹åŠ¨æ€§å°±è¾ƒå·®åQ?/span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">塑化效果亦差ã€?/span><br /> <span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';"><span>    </span><span style="font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';line-height:1.5;">   </span>3)水惔¾l†åº¦çš„媄响:当水泥细度增加时åQ?水惔比表面积ž®±å¢žå¤§ã€‚因此,ž®±éœ€è¦æœ‰æ›´å¤šçš?/span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">分散剂的分子吔R™„覆盖在水泥颗¾_’表面,才能辑ֈ°é¢„期的ä‹É<span id="__kindeditor_bookmark_start_154__"></span>用效果。水泥颗¾_’越¾l†ï¼Œå…¶å‡€‹¹?/span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">‹¹åŠ¨½E›_®šæ€§è¶Šå·®ï¼Œè¦æœ‰å¥½çš„‹¹åŠ¨æ€§ï¼Œåˆ™æ‰€éœ€çš„减水剂ž®Þp¦å¢žå¤šã€?/span><br /> <span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';"><span>    </span><span style="font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';line-height:1.5;">   </span><span id="__kindeditor_bookmark_end_155__"></span>4)水惔中石膏的影响åQšçŸ³è†æŽ§åˆ¶ç¡…酸盐水惔的凝¾l“时间与¼‹¬åŒ–速度åQŒä¸€èˆ¬ä¼šä»¥äºŒæ°´çŸ³è†ã€?/span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">半水矌™†ã€å¯æº¶æ€§æˆ–不可溶性硬矌™†(无水矌™†)½{‰å‡ ¿UåŞ式存在。由于它们的溶解度和溶解</span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">速度是不相同的,在æ؜合物中C3A与SO4-2之间的åã^衡将直接影响减水剂的使用效果。以无水</span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">矌™†ä½œäؓ调凝剂的水惔¼„°åˆ°æœ¨é’™ã€ç³–钙减水剂æ—Óž¼Œä¼šäñ”生严重的不适应性,不仅得不到预æœ?/span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">的效果,而且往往会引èµähµåŠ¨æŸå¤Þp¿‡å¿«ç”šè‡›_¼‚常凝¾l“。因此,对于掺有¼‹¬çŸ³è†çš„水惔åQŒåœ¨ä½?/span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">用减水剂时要特别ž®å¿ƒã€?/span><br /> <span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';"><span>    </span><span style="font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';line-height:1.5;">   </span>5)高效减水剂自íw«ç‰¹æ€§çš„影响åQšé«˜æ•ˆå‡æ°´å‰‚的分子结构对其塑化效果有很大的媄响,˜q?/span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">在前面已¾lè®º˜q°è¿‡äº†ã€‚此外,减水剂的掺量、åŞ态等其他因素有媄响。当高效减水剂掺量过</span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">高时åQŒå…¶åˆ†æ•£ä½œç”¨å¯èƒ½å½±å“åˆ°æ°´åŒ–äñ”物,é˜È¢å®ƒä»¬ä¹‹é—´çš„粘¾l“,从而推˜qŸå¼ºåº¦å¢žé•¿ä»¥åŠé™ä½?/span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">最¾lˆçš„强度。三聚氰胺系高效减水剂、æ°}基磺酸盐¾p»é«˜æ•ˆå‡æ°´å‰‚在施工中只有以水剂方式作</span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">用才能发挥良好的塑化效果ã€?/span><br /> <span>    </span><span style="font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';line-height:1.5;">   </span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';">¿U‘宝<b><a href="http://www.sa-aa.com/" target="_blank" style="font-weight:bold">防水材料供应å•?/a></b>提醒òq¿å¤§æ–½å·¥å•ä½åQŒæµ½E‹è¦æŽŒæ¡åQŒå“è´¨æœ‰ä¿éšœåQŒäh生安全是½W¬ä¸€ã€?/span><br /> <span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';"></span><span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';"><span>    </span><span style="font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';line-height:1.5;">   </span>“科宝UB牌”系列äñ”品凭借具有徏½{‘材料领域的¿U‘技开发优势,产品在国内外建筑行业òq¿æ³›ä½¿ç”¨åQŒå¸‚场占有率均居行业前列åQŒå…·æœ‰ä¸€å®šçš„知名度和影响力,造就新行业品牌,产品销往于中山、珠‹¹—÷€ç•ª¼›ºã€å¹¿å·žã€ä½›å±±ã€æ·±åœŸë€ä¸œèŽžã€æ±Ÿé—¨ç­‰ç ä¸‰è§’地区及周边城市乃至全国地区ã€?/span><br /> <span style="line-height:1.5;font-size:14px;font-family:'Microsoft YaHei';"><span>    </span><span 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